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Water Care Glossary



Algae
Microscopic plants that grow in or around water. Types are green, black, and mustard

Algaecide
Products that prevent or control algae growth

Bacteria

Microscopic organisms, some of which are harmful to bathers, can combine to form pink slime or biofilm

Balanced Water

Water that contains the proper level of mineral content and pH, unbalanced water is corrosive or scale forming which is hard on your equipment and swimmers.

Biofilm
protective coating that forms around bacteria in a pool

Br
Bromine, great sanitizer, not as good oxidizer, It acts as an algicide at 0.2ppm, effective wider pH range than chlorine, but can't be stabilized. Great for use indoors.

Breakpoint Oxidation
An oxidizer is added to then point where Combined Cl breaks down to Free Cl, if usingCl as oxidizer Breakpoint Chlorination is 10ppm free Cl to 1ppm Combined Cl. Nitrogen gas is produced and must be ventilated.

Brominator
Equipment that dispenses Br in controlled gradual manner

Bromamines
Bromamines, bromine combined with organic compounds, it will sanitize, no odor, won't increase CaH,

Buffer

Bicarbonate molecules that can release hydrogen ions or combine with released hydrogen ions and remove them from solution

Ca
Calcium

CaH
Calcium Hardness amount of dissolved Ca, Ideal range is 175 to 225ppm, low will etch surfaces protect surfaces & high corrosion, cloudy water. Raise by adding Ca lower by dilution

Chloramine

Chlorine are formed by the reaction of free chlorine with organic substances, also know asCombined Cl. They are responsible for chlorine smell, and eye irritation

Chlorinator

Equipment that dispenses Cl in controlled gradual manner

Circulation

Water is pumped into the pool through returns in the pool walls and is removed from the pool via a skimmer and drains. The skimmer removes debris from the pool and the filter will trap fine particles. pump must run 10 to 12 hours a day. Circulation is critical toSanitizer effectiveness, the motion makes it harder for algae and bacteria to take hold and moves debris into the filter.

Cl
Chlorine is a sanitizer & oxidizer, sanitizers must be present as a constant low dose, that will take care of most organic contaminant, unstabilized chlorine has high pH and 1/2 life of 35 minutes in sunlight

Cl Generator

Equipment that converts salt (NaCl) into free chlorine through electrolysis

Cl Residual

Amount of Cl left after demand satisfied

Combined Cl

Spent Cl combined with nitrogenous compounds aka Chloramine (Chlorine Cl -ammonia NH₃) compounds, poor sanitizer causes odor and eye irritation

Cloudy

Can't see bottom of shallow end, also see Hazy

Corrosion

Destruction of metals by chemical reaction

Cu
Copper

CYA
Cyanuric Acid is a Cl stabilizer, forms weak bond with Free Cl protecting it from UV rays to reduce Cl loss, but also reduces Cl effectiveness, if using Free Cl should be 2ppm

D.E.
Diatomaceous Earth used as filter medium, note most pool clarifier chemicals can not be used on it

Dead spot
Area in pool with poor circulation

Dichlor
Sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione, stabilized Cl, Fast dissolving, pH neutral

Dilution
Removing some of the pool water and adding fresh, will lower TDS and Ca Hardness

Fe
Iron (Ferrum)

Filters
Filters remove both visible debris and most microscopic matter. Generally, a filter should be backwashed when the water pressure reaches 8 to 10 psi above normal.
Different filter media trap different sizes of contaminates:
Sand 25-40microns
Cartridge 10-15microns
D.E. 3-4microns
Filtration
Moving water through a material that prevents passage of certain molecules, particles, or substances that would cloud water

Free Cl
Hydrochlorous acid, Cl not combined with organic matter so it is available to kill bacteriaand algae, proper range is 1-3ppm, low free Cl can cause swimmer irritation, cloudy water, and algae growth

Hazy
Can see bottom of shallow end but not deep end, also see cloudy

Hypochlorite
or Oxychloride strong oxidizing agent

Hypochlorous acid
HOCl weak acid formed when Cl dissolved in water

Isocyanurates
Chlorinated isocyanurates are leading dry sanitizers for residential pools and spas.

kl
Kilolitre = 1000 litre

Li

Lithium

Mn
Manganese stains pools

Na
Sodium

Nitrogenous compounds

Introduced by plant debris and bather waste (urine, perspiration, cosmetics, sunscreen, etc.)

Non-foaming

Products can be used with attached spas or water features that unlike their counterparts will not cause foaming

Oxidizer
chemically changes components so they can be filtered, do weekly, Cl (good), Br (not as good as Cl), and Ozone (great)

Oxychloride
or Hypochlorite strong oxidizing agent

Ozone

Great oxidizer but does not hold residual

pH
Logarithmic measure of acidity pH<7 (more hydrogen ions H+) or alkalinity pH>7 (more hydroxyl ions OH-) Ideal range for a pool is 7.4 to 7.6

poly-quat

Long chain polymer Quaternary Ammoisum Algacide, non-foaming algicide

ppm
parts per million

Quat

Quaternary Ammoisum Algacide, broad spectrum

Reagent

Material used for testing water, can be tablets, powder or liquid

Sanitizer

Kills algae and bacteria, Cl & Br, must be constantly introduced or have a residual level

SI
Saturation Index = pH + Temperature (f) + CaH factor + TA factor - TDS factor
Is balanced between -0.3 and 0.3, > 0.3 scale forms, <0.3 corrosion

Scale
Coarse Ca deposits on pool wall, floor, and plumbing

Shock

Chemically alters waste like combined Cl in water so in can be filtered out.

Skimmer basket
Stops debris from getting into pump, prevents damage to impeller

Skimmer weir
Stops debris from moving back into pool

Stabilized Cl
contains cyanuric acid has a half life of 6 hours in sunlight, unstablized has a half life of 35 minutes

Super Chlorination
Free Cl of 10ppm

TA
Total Alkalinity, measure of bicarbonate buffer in solution, TA between 125 to 150ppm or 80 to 125ppm for salt pool will help prevent pH from fluctuating, preven corrosion, scale formation, & cloudy water

TH
Total Hardness, see CaH

Total Cl
= Free Cl + Combined Cl

TDS

Total Disolved Solids < 1,500 ppm above source water, solids that don't filter out, lower by dilution
trichloro
trichloro-s-trazinetrione Stabilized Cl, low pH, slow dissolving